Why do plants need water? The easy answer is, “because they’re made mostly of water.” But let’s take it a little further…
Germination is the process of a newborn plant emerging from its seed.
A seed needs water to activate the enzymes that orchestrate the germination process. Absorbed water also causes the seed to swell and soften which makes it possible for the plant to break through.
The enzymes contained within each seed give it enough juice to push the sprouting plant to the surface. After it gets there, light energy, carbon dioxide and water take over.
Very generally put, photosynthesis (literally “putting together” or “synthesizing” light) produces food for the plant by combining light energy, carbon dioxide and water, each of which (along with nutrients from the soil) is needed in order for the plant to grow.
Water is a necessary conduit for the transfer of nutrients from the soil and into the root system. Without it, the soil’s nutrients could not be absorbed by the plant.
Often confused with – and not completely dissimilar from – evaporation, transpiration is the process of water being pulled in through the roots, up the stem and out of the plant. It serves three main purposes:
Transpiration becomes evaporation the instant it leaves the surface of the plant and heads into the atmosphere.
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Sources: Definitions obtained from The Free Dictionary